What is Particle Network?

Overview of Particle Network's technology and products

Particle Network: The Modular L1 Powering Chain Abstraction

Particle Network's goal is to abstract away the complexities associated with user onboarding and interactions across the multi-chain ecosystem, paving the way for mass Web3 adoption.

Launched in 2022, Particle Network debuted as a Wallet Abstraction service provider, enabling users to create wallets linked to their Web2 social accounts, which can then be used natively within dApp-embedded interfaces. After more than 17 Million wallet activations, and over 900 dApp integrations later, Particle is taking the next step in its evolution by debuting its Modular L1 powering chain abstraction.

This page will give you a quick overview of our live and upcoming products, as well as the technology supporting them.

Modular L1

Particle Network's modular L1 blockchain powers chain abstraction and coordinates Universal Accounts across chains, abstracting away wallets, gas, and unifying liquidity. It acts as a universal settlement layer, empowering existing L1s, L2s, and non-EVM blockchains through account coordination.

Relying on the Cosmos SDK to build this L1 allows us to make it intrinsically modular, retaining its sovereignty while outsourcing key functions like validation and data availability to specialized ecosystem actors. It also allows us to leverage Cosmos' Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol for interoperability, enabling cheap, fast cross-chain transaction execution. Our L1 is also based on Rollkit and uses Berachain's Polaris framework for EVM compatibility.

The Particle Chain relies on three core modules, each creating a unique user advantage:

  • Universal Accounts: These are custom ERC-4337 smart account implementations that offer a single user address and balance across ecosystems. With these Accounts, Particle Network proposes a new UserOperation structure, simplifying the management and usage of Smart Contract Wallets on all EVM chains and allowing them to control accounts on heterogeneous blockchains like Bitcoin and Solana.
  • Universal Liquidity: Unifies the liquidity of all chains through the optimistic execution of multi-chain atomic transactions. This allows users to interact with new chains without holding tokens on them.
  • Universal Gas Token: Allows users to pay gas for cross-chain transactions with a Universal Gas Token, as opposed to the multi-chain ecosystem’s need for multiple gas units (SOL, ETH, MATIC, etc.)

Key functionalities and initial ecosystem

The following functionalities are made possible by Particle Network’s modular L1:

  • Master Keystore Hub: Particle Network acts as the central hub coordinating smart contract deployments and updates across all networks, automatically synchronizing settings between each Universal Account instance and ensuring complete state parity across networks.
  • Decentralized Messaging Network (DMN): We implement a solution for the verification and relaying of cross-chain messages. Within it, we leverage LayerZero's v2 design via an optimized DVN, alongside Hyperlane with a custom ISM. We also rely on IBC and Across for deeper interoperability.
  • Decentralized Bundler: Particle Network has designed and implemented a fully censorship-resistant, decentralized Bundler for high-volume UserOperation processing. The Bundler takes transactions from a public UserOp mempool to be processed by Operators participating in Particle Network’s custom Bundler AVS before relaying them.

Design and security

The Particle Network modular L1 features a dual staking system, combining Proof-of-Stake through Tendermint with Ethereum’s native security and censorship resistance, facilitated by EigenLayer’s restaking.

Furthermore, it presents a unique data availability aggregation (AggDA) model relying on providers like NEAR DA, Celestia, EigenDA, and Avail.

Our L1's modular architecture.

Our L1's modular architecture.

Furthermore, Particle Network’s architecture allows the Smart Accounts resulting from its existing Wallet Abstraction solutions (see below) to seamlessly onboard into this new L1, becoming Universal Accounts. This will instantly allow them to settle and coordinate cross-chain operations on our network, also bootstrapping the chain’s initial ecosystem and traction.

Particle Network's modular L1's Testnet is projected to be released in Q1 2024, with its Mainnet released in Q2. For a soft roadmap and more technical details, visit its dedicated page: (Modular L1).

Wallet Abstraction solutions

Prior to the release of our Modular L1, Particle's Wallet Abstraction stack comprises two main products, both of which are used by over 4M daily users across 56 chains. These are:

Modular Smart Wallet-as-a-Service

Particle's Modular Smart Wallet-as-a-Service (WaaS) stack allows developers to tap into MPC-TSS and social logins to enable self-custodial, dApp-embedded wallets. It also empowers them to leverage the potential of ERC-4337 account abstraction, enabling a seamless, flexible experience.

In short, Modular Smart WaaS allows developers and users to interact natively with AA while directly tied to an MPC-secured account generated by Particle. This fulfills the following critical points:

  • Seamless onboarding via WaaS & non-custodial key management: Particle’s existing implementation of WaaS features advanced MPC-TSS private key management. Combined with social authentication, this ensures that end users can be swiftly and securely onboarded –regardless of their level of familiarity– into Web3.
  • Leveraging AA’s flexibility without compromising application complexity: This empowers developers to build all kinds of applications, making the most out of AA’s capabilities. Particle’s AA-SDK enables very familiar mechanisms of interacting with smart accounts programmatically –such as familiar transaction structures, building, and account management– all handled seamlessly by the SDK. This results in a short path to start using AA with Particle’s WaaS, simplifying interactions with dApps.
  • AA modularity via WaaS: Particle’s AA SDK allows developers to approach AA modularly, plugging into their preferred smart account implementations, Bundlers, Paymasters, etc., with ease. As a WaaS provider, Particle can also be plugged into any initial/onboarding point within AA applications as an EOA-based Signer, even if they don’t natively use the AA SDK. As such, even non-native AA applications can leverage Particle’s WaaS for onboarding. This creates a wholly customizable building experience for native and non-native applications alike.

BTC Connect

BTC Connect is the first EVM-compatible ERC-4337 AA protocol for Bitcoin, supported by leading players in the BTC universe.

Particle Network enables account abstraction in the Bitcoin ecosystem by bringing ERC-4337 natively to Bitcoin L2s. Thanks to it, users can enjoy all the UX benefits of AA on Bitcoin without the need for secondary interfaces (such as a MetaMask wallet). This enables them to control a smart account on an EVM-compatible Bitcoin L2 with a "regular" Bitcoin Wallet (such as UniSat, Xverse, Bitget, TokenPocket, etc.) as its Signer. As a result, a user can interact with these networks while holding either only native BTC or no assets at all (if leveraging gasless transactions).

By implementing BTC Connect, developers can offer their users all of the benefits of account abstraction within EVM-compatible Bitcoin L2 chains, including account programmability, gasless interactions, batched transactions, etc.