Universal Accounts

Universal SDK Application Dissection - placeholder

Universal SDK Application Dissection

Universal Application

Applications that implement Particle Network's Universal SDK are referred to as "Universal Applications," indicating that the underlying account structure either partially or exclusively uses Universal Accounts, Particle Network's ERC-4337 smart account implementation powered by its modular Layer-1 blockchain.

Universal Accounts provide users with a single, unified balance and account state across all chains.

Universal Applications can be leveraged by users from any ecosystem, without requiring them to manually bridge or manage cross-chain balances, install new wallets, etc. Instead, value is moved to the chain in which the Universal Application is hosted on a per-request basis.

Users who fund and leverage Universal Accounts can use the same pool of tokens across every chain. Therefore, Universal Applications act as a destination and interaction point for Universal Accounts, directly enabling their usage through Particle Network's Universal SDK.

For developers building Universal Applications and therefore working with Particle Network's Universal SDK, implementation is as easy as configuring the SDK and establishing a Universal (smart) Account object through an EIP-1193 provider object. From this point, the resulting object can either be used directly to facilitate transactions through a Universal Account, or it can be used directly within Ethers, web3.js, or viem.

Upon requesting a transaction to be signed by a Universal Account through the mechanism described above, Particle Network will automatically source and execute cross-chain transactions and swaps to fund the operation being signed (or, if the user lacks sufficient balance across chains, an error will be thrown).

Transaction Flow Visualization (initiated by Particle Network's Universal SDK or an associated EIP-1193 provider)

Transaction Flow Visualization (initiated by Particle Network's Universal SDK, or an associated EIP-1193 provider)

Implementation Flow

While the Universal SDK is yet to be released, the integration flow can be understood in the context of Particle Network's AA SDK. Since Universal Accounts exist on top of EOAs (using them as signers), implementation is as simple as having a user connect their wallet and driving their interactions through an assigned Universal Account.

In reality, this is materialized by using an EIP-1193 provider corresponding with the user's underlying EOA within the construction of a Universal Account object, allowing the resulting account to be signed using the attached EOA.

A Universal Account (Smart Account) object should then be either converted to an EIP-1193 provider and used within a standard Web3 library, such as Ethers, or used directly to send and sign standard transactions.


Note for developers already using Smart Wallet-as-a-Service or BTC Connect

Existing users leveraging smart accounts originating from BTC Connect or Particle Network's Smart Wallet-as-a-Service will automatically be upgraded to a Universal Account.

This means no further action is required to leverage Universal Accounts.

Compatible Interfaces

When leveraging Universal Accounts, it's important to understand the unconventional mechanism in which a user's balance is expressed. Due to the nature of unifying balances across all chains, and additionally using a smart account to drive such action, the interface in which a user reads and writes to the Universal Account will be equally nuanced.

Standard wallet interfaces won't display a Universal Account nor its unified balance. Rather, developers will have two options to display balances and provide a simple account interface for end users:

  1. Leveraging Particle Network's embedded wallet: By default, Universal Accounts can be interfaced through Particle Network's embedded wallet, a built-in component for reading balances and sending simple transactions. This interface will reflect the totality of a user's balance across chains, further reinforcing the perception of a single, unified balance.
  2. Through a custom-built application-specific interface: Some developers may prefer to reflect balances and provide users with an account interface through their own application-specific mechanism. This would require this mechanism to read and aggregate the balances a Universal Account holds across chains and driving standard interactions as covered within this document.

Account Abstraction

As mentioned, Universal Accounts are ERC-4337 smart accounts. Users’ Externally Owned Account (EOA), such as their MetaMask, social login, etc. act as the signer for their Universal Account.

Universal Accounts exist on top of traditional EOAs, meaning users need to maintain a balance on their Universal Account; although, as mentioned, the location in which this occurs is irrelevant, as funds will be automatically made available to be used within your application regardless of where a user has their balance.

Network Design

Universal Accounts’ functionality is achieved through numerous interrelated technologies, such as:

  • Universal Liquidity, driving the optimistic execution of cross-chain transactions and swaps to create unified liquidity across ecosystems.
  • Universal Gas Token, enabling transactions that incur cross-chain operations to be paid with a Universal Gas Token rather than multiple native tokens.
  • Universal Accounts, a central address and interface for users to interact with any chain, including ecosystems such as Solana, Cosmos, and Bitcoin.
  • Particle Network's Modular L1, the universal settlement layer powering the three former components through numerous infrastructural components, such as Particle's Decentralized Messaging Network.

To learn more about the architecture of any of the technologies mentioned above, see the buttons below.

Web3 API Cards

Modular L1

Particle Network's flagship blockchain built to enable chain abstraction.


Universal Accounts

An ERC-4337 smart account implementation enabling a unified address and balance across chains.


Universal Liquidity

Infrastructure powering Particle Network's unified liquidity mechanism, creating the perception of a constant multi-chain balance.


Universal Gas Token

Particle Network's Universal Gas Token for standardized cross-chain gas fee payments.